The issue between Powell and Brennan was not the consistency and stringency of the principle but its content. Nozick 1974: The undergraduate admissions office operated differently than the Law School. Plausibly the firm could satisfy her claim to reparation by hiring her in preference over better qualified candidates for the same position if it became available. Likewise, James Rachels defended racial preferences as devices to neutralize unearned advantages by whites.
They can only afford 2 children, but lack of ability or whatever prevents them from keeping their family size down. To give an obvious example, a racially diverse community needs a racially diverse police force if the police are to gain the trust of all parts of the community and if one part of the community is not to feel dominated by the other part.
It goes as follows: But social equality cannot be secured by even the most rigorous protection of the civil and political rights of the freed people; on the contrary such protection can help social inequality to persist since it entitles individuals to choose their friends and associates even if their choice is determined by color prejudice.
Ideologues like Bell, whether radical Blacks like himself, or Nazis who advocate "think Aryan," both represent the same thing: It says it is right to do wrong to correct a wrong.
Some philosophers and social scientists hold that human nature is roughly identical, so that on a fair playing field the same proportion from every race and ethnic group and both genders would attain to the highest positions in every area of endeavor. Hence, it is only fair - productive of justice - to aim at proportionate representation in these fields.
But why does society have to enter into this results game in the first place? If those outcomes don't materialize, then affirmative action's cause is weakened. Therefore better qualified people do not deserve their qualifications. Why, indeed? Suppose my parents, divining that I would grow up to have an unsurpassable desire to be a basketball player, bought an expensive growth hormone for me. I must pay you an amount reflecting your loss and my ability to pay.
Sycophancy not self-reliance is encouraged by being always at the mercy of the powerful.
Cohen needs to specify a conception of dignity in which bearing unequal burdens on behalf of urgent social ends invariably amounts to an assault on dignity if the burdens happen to be assigned by race.
Basic Books, 1966. This objection let us recall is that making reparation to the present black population for the harms that slavery caused it is impossible because if slavery had never occurred the present black population would not exist.
But it did not. Interestingly too he seems to think that unpaid labor is the only harm the transgressions of slavery caused the slaves or that merits any mention.